Information and frequently asked questions

Q How are the images produced?
All of the images shown on this site were designed and produced using the software package prism (© Michael Field, 1996). The original images, from which all the snapshots shown on this site were produced, are typically computed at resolutions of 4000 or more lines (that is, in pixel terms, at least 16 million pixels). The PNG and JPG images shown on this site are highly scaled down versions of the originals. Typically, they are about 650 lines (for PNG files) or 170 lines (for JPG files).

Q How are pictures produced from these data files?
The original GIF, TIFF or PNG files are taken to a local image processing lab ( Houston Photo Lab) where they are printed directly onto high quality photgraphic paper at sizes starting at 16 x 20 inches. This process (Durst Lambda) involves the minimum number of steps and the minimum loss of detail/quality.

Q Where can I obtain information about the algorithms used to produce the images?
A source for some of the basic ideas and algorithms underlying the production of the images is Symmetry in Chaos by Michael Field and Martin Golubitsky, OUP, 1992 (2nd edition published by SIAM, 2009).

Q Are the programs that produce these images available? Rudimentary QBASIC programs may still be found at the URL

Q More questions?
e-mail: or
Professor Mike Field
Department of Mathematics
Rice University
6100 S Main St
TX 77005-1892